Origins of a Creole : the history of Papiamentu and its African ties / by Bart Jacobs.

This study embarks on the intriguing quest for the origins of the Caribbean creole language Papiamentu, casting new and long-lasting light on the issue. Embedding exhaustive and rigorous linguistic comparisons in a detailed and novel historical framework, the study convincingly argues that Papiament...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Author: Jacobs, Bart, 1979-
Format: eBook
Language:English
Published: Berlin ; Boston : De Gruyter Mouton, 2012.
Series:Language contact and bilingualism ; 3.
Subjects:
Online Access:Click for online access
Table of Contents:
  • Machine generated contents note: Presentation of the languages considered in the present study
  • Papiamentu (PA)
  • Cape Verdean Creole (CV)
  • The Creole of Guinea-Bissau and Casamance (GBC)
  • Hypothesis examined in the present study
  • Methodological remarks
  • Linguistic evidence
  • Negative evidence
  • Historical evidence
  • Structure of the present study
  • 1. Critical review of the literature on the origins of Papiamentu
  • Introduction
  • 1.1. From Schabel (1704) to Lenz (1928)
  • 1.2. Afro-Portuguese hypotheses: from Lenz (1928) to monogenesis
  • 1.3. Spanish hypotheses
  • 1.4. Critical discussion of the Spanish hypotheses
  • 1.4.1. Linguistic continuity between the pre- and post-1634 period?
  • 1.4.2. Linguistic evidence against Old Spanish in PA's superstate
  • 1.4.3. About the tendency to attribute the Portuguese to other Hispanic varieties
  • 1.5. PA birth among the Sephardim?
  • 1.5.1. On the linguistic profile of the early Curacaoan Sephardim.
  • Note continued: 1.5.2. Demographic arguments against a PA birth among the Sephardim
  • 1.6. Where does the Portuguese come from?
  • 1.6.1.A shared origin for all Afro-Iberian creoles in the Caribbean?
  • 1.6.2. Goodman's Brazilian Creole Hypothesis
  • 1.6.3. Gulf of Guinea Portuguese-based Creole
  • 1.6.4. Upper Guinea Portuguese-based Creole
  • 1.7. Summary
  • 2. Phonology
  • Introduction
  • 2.1. Vowel features
  • 2.1.1. Vowel raising
  • 2.1.2. Rounding of unstressed vowels
  • 2.1.3. Vowel harmony
  • 2.1.4. Monophthongs
  • 2.2. Consonant features
  • 2.2.1. The voiceless palatal fricative /s/ in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 2.2.2. Retention of Old Portuguese voiceless affricate /tS/ in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 2.2.3. Rejection of voiced fricatives in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 2.2.4. The lack of lambdacism (/r/> /l/) in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 2.2.5. Rhotacism (/d/> /r/)
  • 2.3. Syllabic restructuring
  • 2.3.1. Apheresis of prefixes
  • 2.3.2. Vowel epenthesis.
  • Note continued: 2.3.3. Metathesis of the /r/
  • 2.3.4. Negative evidence: syllabic restructuring in PLQ and Gulf of Guinea PC
  • 2.4. Paroxytonic verb stress in PA and SCV
  • 2.4.1. Verb stress in GBC
  • 2.4.2. On the diachrony of paroxytonic verb stress in PA and SCV
  • 2.5. Final remarks on phonology
  • 3. Selected parts of speech
  • Introduction
  • 3.1. Personal pronouns
  • 3.1.1.lsg (a)mi
  • 3.1.2. Emphatic a-subject pronouns
  • 3.1.3.2pl SCV nhos
  • 3.1.4. Digression: 2sg polite pronouns in PA
  • 3.1.5. PA nan
  • 3.1.6. Final remarks on pronouns
  • 3.2. Prepositions
  • 3.2.1. PA / Upper Guinea PC di
  • 3.2.2. PA / Upper Guinea PC na
  • 3.2.3. PA / Upper Guinea PC te
  • 3.2.4. PA / Upper Guinea PC riba (di)
  • 3.2.5. PA / Upper Guinea PC pa
  • 3.2.6. Zero preposition with motion verb + place
  • 3.2.7. Reanalysis of Iberian prepositions/adverbs `in front of' and `behind' as nouns
  • 3.2.8.Composed prepositions
  • 3.2.9.A reassessment of the time-depth of prepositions in PA.
  • Note continued: 3.2.10. Final remarks on prepositions
  • 3.3. Interrogatives
  • 3.3.1. Equally transparent interrogative paradigms
  • 3.3.2. PA: Portuguese rather than Spanish etyma
  • 3.3.3. Early PA *kantu, *kal
  • 3.3.4. PA unda, SCV unde and GBC nunde
  • 3.3.5. PA / Upper Guinea PC ken
  • 3.4. Conjunctions
  • 3.4.1. Coordinate conjunctions
  • 3.4.2. Subordinate conjunctions
  • 3.4.3. Final remarks on conjunctions
  • 3.5. Miscellaneous
  • 3.5.1. Reciprocity and reflexivity
  • 3.5.2. The deictic marker Early PA / Upper Guinea PC es
  • 3.5.3. Negation
  • 4. Morphology
  • Introduction
  • 4.1. Derivational morphology
  • 4.1.1. PA -mentu
  • 4.1.2. PA -do
  • 4.1.3. Upper Guinea PC -mentu / -dor
  • 4.1.4. The suffix -dadi in Early PA texts
  • 4.2. Inflectional morphology
  • 4.2.1. The diachrony of PA's past participle morpheme-/Ø/
  • 4.2.2. The regularization of past participle morphology in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 4.3. Passivization in (Early) PA and Upper Guinea PC.
  • Note continued: 4.3.1. Passivization in present-day PA
  • 4.3.2. Passivization in Upper Guinea PC
  • 4.3.3. Auxiliary-less passives in Early PA texts
  • 4.3.4. Digression: On the reliability of Early PA evangelical texts
  • 4.3.5. Auxiliary-less passives (/passive verbs) in present-day Papiamentu
  • 4.3.6. On the incorporation of wordu and ser
  • 4.3.7. Digression: The presumed non-nativeness of passives in PA
  • 4.3.8. Final remarks on passivization in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 4.4. Final remarks on morphology
  • 5. Verbal system
  • Introduction
  • 5.1. PA / Upper Guinea PC preverbal ta
  • 5.1.1. Analyzing CV ta as a progressive aspect marker
  • 5.1.2. Analyzing PA ta as [+imperfective], rather than [+present]
  • 5.1.3. Final remarks on PA / Upper Guinea PC preverbal ta
  • 5.2. The diachrony of the PA perfective past marker a
  • 5.3. Future tense marking in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 5.3.1. The PA future tense marker lo vs. its absence in Upper Guinea PC.
  • Note continued: 5.3.2. On the origin of PA lo
  • 5.3.3. The diachrony of future tense marking in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 5.3.4. Digression: SCV al and PA lo
  • 5.4. PA / BaCV taba
  • tabata
  • 5.4.1. Digression: On the diachrony of preverbal taba and postverbal -ba
  • 5.5. The issue of relative versus absolute tense marking in PA
  • 5.6.A comparison of stative verbs in PA and SCV
  • 5.6.1. The stative
  • nonstative distinction in creoles
  • 5.6.2. Strong vs. weak stative verbs
  • 5.6.3. The class of strong stative verbs
  • 5.6.4. The class of weak stative verbs
  • 5.6.5. Contrastive analysis
  • 5.6.6. Digression: The case of GBC
  • 5.7. Auxiliary verbs
  • 5.7.1. Modal auxiliaries
  • 5.7.2. Copular verbs
  • 5.7.3. Other auxiliaries
  • 5.7.4. Final remarks on auxiliary verbs
  • 5.8. Final remarks on the verbal system
  • 6. Summary and interim analysis of the linguistic results
  • Introduction
  • 6.1. Predominance of Portuguese-derived function words in PA.
  • Note continued: 6.2. Structural overlap between PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 6.3. Negative evidence from PLQ and Gulf of Guinea PC
  • 6.3.1. Digression: What sets PA and Upper Guinea PC apart from Gulf of Guinea PC
  • 6.4. Old Portuguese features in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 6.5. The value of historical PA and Upper Guinea PC texts
  • 6.6. West-Atlantic and Mande features in PA and Upper Guinea PC
  • 7. The historical ties between Upper Guinea and Curacao
  • Introduction
  • 7.1. On the presumed insignificance of Upper Guinea to the history of Curacao
  • 7.2. The Dutch presence in Senegambia in the 17th century
  • 7.2.1. The Dutch in Goree
  • 7.2.2. The Dutch on the Petite Cote (Rufisque, Portudal and Joal)
  • 7.2.3. The loss of Goree and the Dutch retreat from Senegambia
  • 7.2.4. The Dutch ties with Cacheu and the Cape Verde Islands
  • 7.2.5. Final remarks on the Dutch presence in Senegambia in the 17th century
  • 7.3. Dutch slave trade from Upper Guinea to Curacao.
  • Note continued: 7.3.1. Other factors relevant to the Dutch slave trade from Upper Guinea to Curacao
  • 7.4. Sephardic Jewish networks linking Upper Guinea to Curacao
  • 7.4.1. Ties between the Sephardim in Upper Guinea and Amsterdam
  • 7.4.2. Sephardim networks directly linking Upper Guinea to Curacao
  • 7.4.3. Partnership between the Dutch WIC and the Sephardim
  • 7.5. Diffusion of Upper Guinea PC to the mainland, 16th and 17th centuries
  • 7.6. Summary, conclusions, and final remarks
  • 8. Discussion: The development from Upper Guinea PC to Papiamentu
  • Introduction
  • 8.1. Sociolinguistic considerations
  • 8.1.1. On the choice of slaves in the early period of Curacao's settlement
  • 8.1.2. Sociolinguistic issues relevant to the consolidation of Upper Guinea PC on Curacao and its diffusion among the (slave) population
  • 8.2. From Upper Guinea PC to PA: a case of rapid relexification towards Spanish
  • 8.2.1. PA, monogenesis, and the notion of relexification in creole studies.
  • Note continued: 8.2.2. From Upper Guinea PC to PA: `relexification' rather than `heavy borrowing'
  • 8.2.3. Analyzing Papiamentu as a mixed language
  • 8.2.4. The source(s) of the Spanish elements in PA's basic content vocabulary
  • 8.3. Summary of the discussion
  • 9. Conclusions.